# Pick the right basis for your calculation¶

The development of basis sets suitable to use in relativistic calculations reflects the relatively lateness of the field’s development. Because the more consistent efforts in method development started at about the mid 1980’s, it wasn’t until well into the late 1990’s that the pioneering works of the early and mid 1990’s were substantially complemented and improved upon.

This situations has dramatically improved in recent years, notably with the work of K. G. Dyall, and Dirac users are strongly advised to use Dyall’s basis sets whenever they are available. These sets follow roughly the “correlation-consisten” philosophy introduced by Dunning and coworkers [Dunning1989], so they already contain polarization functions.

At the time of writing, these are avaiable from Ga onwards, and a detailed description can be found at the dirac website, under the “Basis Set Repository” link[1] <http://dirac.chem.sdu.dk/basisarchives/dyall/index.html>_. For convenience, Dirac collects all of Dyall’s available basis sets (those published and areadly in distributable form, as the ones listed in the repository below, as well as those in preparation) in basis set files. One must keep in mind that currently these files support only the use of fully uncontracted basis sets.

The following files are present in Dirac’s distribution:

dyall.v2z contains the double-zeta basis dyall.v3z contains the triple-zeta basis dyall.v4z contains the quadruple-zeta basis dyall.av2z contains the double-zeta basis (as in dyall.v2z) plus diffuse functions (p-block only) dyall.av3z contains the triple-zeta basis (as in dyall.v3z) plus diffuse functions (p-block only) dyall.av4z contains the quadruple-zeta basis (as in dyall.v4z) plus diffuse functions (p-block only)

For light elements (say up to Argon) it is advisable to continue using standard non-relativistic basis set, such as the correlation-consistent sets of Dunning and coworkers. It is advisable that, in order to have a balanced description when light and heavy elements are present, that one uses either contracted or uncontracted sets thoughout.

Apart from Dyall’s sets, one can choose several different basis sets based upon geometric progressions of exponents. One such set is that of K. Faegri, also available in the basis set library, but with the drawback that the user needs to extended it by adding polarization functions.

The DIRAC distribution shares a large library of standard non-relativistic and scalar-relativistic basis sets with the Dalton program. These basis sets can be found in the directory basis_dalton of the DIRAC distribution.

These basis sets are not all suitable for relativistic calculations, especially not for the heavier elements. Basis sets developed for full relativistic calculations (including spin-orbit coupling) can be found in the directory basis.

As Ken Dyall extends the archive actively, the latest of these basis sets may not be available in the basis directory of your DIRAC distribution.

See the Dyall basis set repository for the latest updates by Ken Dyall and the appropriate basis set references.

We recommend that you use Dyall basis sets (see, for instance http://dirac.chem.sdu.dk/basisarchives/dyall/index.html) whenever they are available for the elements of interest. In order to make that usage as convenient as possible, the following files, containing all sets currently available at the URL above (published or to be published), are made available:

quality valence core-valence
double-zeta dyall.v2z dyall.cv2z
triple-zeta dyall.v3z dyall.cv3z